Brief History of
Where did this idea come from?
Source: The Evolution Cruncher
First, a little background:
Stellar evolution is based on the concept that nothing can explode and
produce all the stars and worlds. Life evolution is founded on the twin
theories of spontaneous generation and Lamarckism (the inheritance of
acquired characteristics);--yet, although they remain the basis of
biological evolution, both were debunked by scientists over a century ago.
Science is the study of the natural world. We are thankful for the many
dedicated scientists who are hard at work, improving life for us. But we
will learn that their discoveries have provided no worthwhile evidence
supporting evolutionary theory.
Premises are important. They are the concepts by which scientific facts
are interpreted. For over a century, efforts have been made to explain
scientific discoveries by a mid-19th century theory, known as "evolution."
It has formed the foundation for many theories. Yet none of them are
founded on scientific facts! They are the concepts by which scientific
facts are interpreted.
Here are the two premises on which the various theories of evolution are
This is the evolutionary formula for making a
Nothing + nothing = two elements
+ time = 92 natural elements + time = all physical laws and a
completely structured universe of galaxies, systems, stars, planets,
and moons orbiting in perfect balance and order.
This is the evolutionary formula for making life:
Dirt + water + time = living
Evolutionists theorize that the
above two formulas can enable everything about us to make itself – with
the exception of man-made things, such as automobiles or buildings.
Complicated things, such as wooden boxes with nails in them, require
thought, intelligence, and careful workmanship. But everything else about
us in nature, such as hummingbirds and the human eye, is declared to be
the result of accidental mishaps, random confusion, and time. You will not
even need raw materials to begin with. They make themselves too.
How did all this nonsense get started? We will begin with a brief overview
of the modern history of evolutionary theory.
But let us not forget that, though it may be nonsensical, evolutionary
theory has greatly affected – and damaged – mankind in the 20th century.
Will we continue to let this happen, now that we are in the 21st century?
The social and moral impact that evolutionary concepts have had on the
modern world has been terrific.
Morality and ethical standards
Morality and ethical standards have been greatly reduced. Children and
youth are taught in school that they are an advanced level of animals;
there are no moral principles. Since they are just animals, they should do
whatever they want. Personal survival and success will come only by
rivalry, strife, and stepping on others.
Here is a brief overview of some of the people and events in the history
of modern evolutionary theory. But it is only a glimpse
18th and 19th Century Scientists
Prior to the middle of the 1800s, scientists were researchers who firmly
believed that all nature was made by a Master Designer. Those pioneers who
laid the foundations of modern science were creationists. They were men of
giant intellect who struggled against great odds in carrying on their
work. They were hard-working researchers.
In contrast, the philosophers sat around, hardly stirring from their
armchairs and theorized about everything while the scientists, ignoring
them, kept at their work.
But a change came about in the 19th century, when the philosophers tried
to gain control of scientific endeavor and suppress research and findings
that would be unfavorable to their theories. Today’s evolutionists
vigorously defend the unscientific theories they thought up over a century
William Paley (1743-1805), in his 1802 classic, Natural Theology,
summarized the viewpoint of the scientists. He argued that the kind of
carefully designed structures we see in the living world point clearly to
a Designer. If we see a watch, we know that it had a designer and maker;
it would be foolish to imagine that it made itself. This is the "argument
by design." All about us is the world of nature, and over our heads at
night is a universe of stars. We can ignore or ridicule what is there or
say it all made itself, but our scoffing does not change the reality of
the situation. A leading atheistic scientist of our time, Fred Hoyle,
wrote that, although it was not difficult to disprove Darwinism, what
Paley had to say appeared likely to be unanswerable (Fred Hoyle and
Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space, 1981, p. 96).
It is a remarkable fact that the
basis of evolutionary theory was destroyed by seven scientific research
findings,--before Charles Darwin first published the theory.
Carl Linn (Carolus Linnaeus,
1707-1778) was a scientist who classified immense numbers of living
organisms. An earnest creationist, he clearly saw that there were no
halfway species. All plant and animal species were definite categories,
separate from one another. Variation was possible within a kind, and there
were many sub-species. But there were no crossovers from one kind to
another (R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 276).
First Law of Thermodynamics (1847). Heinrich von Helmholtz stated
the law of conservation of energy: The sum total of all matter will always
remain the same. This law refutes several aspects of evolutionary theory.
Isaac Asimov calls it "the most fundamental generalization about the
universe that scientists have ever been able to make" (quoted in Isaac
Asimov, "In the Game of Energy and Thermodynamics You Can’t Even Break
Even," Journal of Smithsonian Institute, June 1970, p. 6).
Second Law of Thermodynamics (1850). R.J.E. Clausius stated the law
of entropy:: All systems will tend toward the most mathematically probable
state, and eventually become totally random and disorganized (Harold Blum,
Time’s Arrow and Evolution, 1968, p. 201). In other words, everything runs
down, wears out, and goes to pieces (R.R. Kindsay, "Physics: to What
Extent is it Deterministic," American Scientist 56, 1968, p. 100). This
law totally eliminates the basic evolutionary theory that simple evolves
into complex. Einstein said the two laws were the most enduring laws he
knew of (Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View, 1980, p. 6).
Guadeloupe Woman Found (1812). This is a well-authenticated
discovery which has been in the British Museum for over a century. A fully
human skeleton was found in the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe
inside an immense slab of limestone, dated by modern geologists at 28
million years old. (More examples could be cited.) Human beings, just like
those living today (but sometimes larger) have been found in very deep
levels of strata.
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was a creationist who lived and worked
near Brunn (now Brno), Czechoslovakia. He was a science and math teacher.
Unlike the theorists, Mendel was a true scientist. He bred garden peas and
studied the results of crossing various varieties. Beginning his work in
1856, he concluded it within eight years. In 1865, he reported his
research in the Journal of the Brunn Society for the Study of Natural
Science. The journal was distributed to 120 libraries in Europe, England,
and America. Yet his research was totally ignored by the scientific
community until it was rediscovered in 1900 (R.A. Fisher, "Has Mendel’s
Work Been Rediscovered?" Annals of Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1936). His
experiments clearly showed that one species could not transmute into
another one. A genetic barrier existed that could not be bridged. Mendel’s
work laid the basis for modern genetics, and his discoveries effectively
destroyed the basis for species evolution (Michael Pitman, Adam and
Evolution, 1984, pp. 63-64).
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was another genuine scientist. In the
process of studying fermentation, he performed his famous 1861 experiment,
in which he disproved the theory of spontaneous generation. Life cannot
arise from non-living materials. This experiment was very important; for,
up to that time, a majority of scientists believed in spontaneous
generation. (They thought that if a pile of old clothes were left in a
corner, it would breed mice! The proof was that, upon later returning to
the clothes, mice would frequently be found there.) Pasteur concluded from
his experiment that only God could create living creatures. But modern
evolutionary theory continues to be based on the out-dated theory
disproved by Pasteur: spontaneous generation (life arises from non-life).
Why? Because it is the only real basis on which evolution could occur. As
Adams notes, "With spontaneous generation discredited [by Pasteur],
biologists were left with no theory of the origin of life at all" (J.
Edison Adams, Plants: An Introduction to Modern Biology, 1967, p. 585).
August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (1834-1914) was a German
biologist who disproved Lamarck’s notion of "the inheritance of acquired
characteristics." He is primarily remembered as the scientist who cut off
the tails of 901 young white mice in 19 successive generations, yet each
new generation was born with a full-length tail. The final generation, he
reported, had tails as long as those originally measured on the first.
Weismann also carried out other experiments that buttressed his refutation
of Lamarckism. His discoveries, along with the fact that circumcision of
Jewish males for 4,000 years had not affected the foreskin, doomed the
theory (Jean Rostand, Orion Book of Evolution, 1960, p. 64). Yet
Lamarckism continues today as the disguised basis of evolutionary biology.
For example, evolutionists still teach that giraffes kept stretching their
necks to reach higher branches, so their necks became longer! In a later
book, Darwin abandoned natural selection, as unworkable, and returned to
Lamarckism as the cause of the never-observed change from one species to
another (Randall Hedtke, The Secret of the Sixth Edition, 1984).
Here is a brief, partial overview
of what true scientists were accomplishing in the 18th and 19th centuries.
All of them were Creationists:
Louis Agassiz (1807-1873):
glacial geology, ichthyology.
Charles Babbage (1792-1871):
actuarial tables, calculating machine, foundations of computer science.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626):
scientific method of research.
Robert Boyle (1627-1691):
chemistry, gas dynamics.
Sir David Brewster (1781-1868):
optical mineralogy, kaleidoscope.
Georges Cuvier (1769-1832):
comparative anatomy, vertebrate paleontology.
Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829):
Jean Henri Fabre (1823-1915):
entomology of living insects.
Michael Faraday (1791-1867):
electric generator, electro-magnetics, field theory.
Sir John A. Fleming (1849-1945):
electronics, thermic valve.
Joseph Henry (1797-1878):
electric motor, galvanometer.
Sir William Herschel (1738-1822):
galactic astronomy, double stars.
James Joule (1818-1889):
Lord William Kelvin (1824-1907):
absolute temperature scale, energetics, thermodynamics, transatlantic cable.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630):
celestial mechanics, ephemeris tables, physical astronomy.
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778):
classification system, systematic biology.
Joseph Lister (1827-1912):
Matthew Maury (1806-1873):
James C. Maxwell (1831-1879):
electrical dynamics, statistical thermodynamics.
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884):
Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872):
Isaac Newton (1642-1727):
calculus, dynamics, law of gravity, reflecting telescopes.
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662):
Louise Pasteur (1822-1895):
bacteriology, biogenesis law, pasteurization, vaccination, and immunization.
Sir William Ramsey (1852-1916):
inert gases, isotropic chemistry.
John Ray (1827-1705): natural
history, classification of plants and animals.
John Rayleigh (1842-1919):
dimensional analysis, model analysis.
Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866):
Sir James Simpson (1811-1870):
Sir George Stockes (1819-1903):
Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902):
18th and 19th Century
And now we will view the armchair philosophers. Hardly one of them ever
set foot in field research or entered the door of a science laboratory,
yet they founded the modern theory of evolution:
Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) was a do-nothing expert. In his
1734 book, Principia, he theorized that a rapidly rotating nebula formed
itself into our solar system of sun and planets. He claimed that he
obtained the idea from spirits during a séance. It is significant that the
nebular hypothesis theory originated from such a source.
Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) was a dissolute philosopher who, unable
to improve on the work of Linnaeus, spent his time criticizing him. He
theorized that species originated from one another and that a chunk was
torn out of the sun, which became our planet. As with the other
philosophers, he presented no evidence in support of his theories.
Jean-Baptist Lamarck (1744-1829) made a name for himself by
theorizing. He accomplished little else of significance. He laid the
foundation of modern evolutionary theory, with his concept of "inheritance
of acquired characteristics," which was later given the name Lamarckism.
In 1809, he published a book, Philosophie zoologique, in which he declared
that the giraffe got its long neck by stretching it up to reach the higher
branches, and birds that lived in water grew webbed feet. If you pull hard
on your feet, you can increase their length; and, if you decide in your
mind to do so, you can grow hair on your bald head, and your offspring
will never be bald. This is science?
Lamarck’s other erroneous contribution to evolution was the theory of
uniformitarianism. This is the conjecture that all earlier ages on earth
were exactly as they are today, calm and peaceful with no worldwide Flood
or other great catastrophes.
Robert Chambers (1802-1883) was a spiritualist who regularly
communicated with spirits. As a result of his contacts, he wrote the first
popular evolution book in all of Britain. Vestiges of Creation (1844), was
printed 15 years before Charles Darwin’s book, Origin of the Species.
Charles Lyell (1797-1875). Like Charles Darwin, Lyell inherited
great wealth and was able to spend his time theorizing. Lyell published
his Principles of Geology in 1830-1833, and it became the basis for the
modern theory of sedimentary strata,--even though 20th-century discoveries
in radiodating, radiocarbon dating, missing strata, and overthrusts (older
strata on top of more recent strata) have nullified the theory.
In order to prove his theory, Lyell was quite willing to misstate the
facts. He learned that Niagara Falls had eroded a seven-mile [11 km]
channel from Queenston, Ontario, and that it was eroding at about 3 feet
[1 m] a year. So Lyell conveniently changed that to one foot [.3 m] a
year, which meant that the falls had been flowing for 35,000 years! But
Lyell had not told the truth. Three-foot erosion a year, at its present
rate of flow, would only take us back 7000 to 9000 years,--and it would be
expected that, just after the Flood, the flow would, for a time, have
greatly increased the erosion rate. Lyell was a close friend of Darwin,
and urged him to write his book, Origin of the Species.
Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) is considered to be the man who
developed the theory which Darwin published. Wallace was deeply involved
in spiritism at the time he formulated the theory in his Ternate Paper,
which Darwin, with the help of two friends (Charles Lyell and Joseph
Hooker), pirated and published under his own name. Darwin, a wealthy man,
thus obtained the royalties which belonged to Wallace, a poverty-ridden
theorist. In 1980, Arnold C. Brackman, in his book, A Delicate
Arrangement, established that Darwin plagiarized Wallace’s material. It
was arranged that a paper by Darwin would be read to the Royal Society, in
London, while Wallace’s was held back until later. Priorities for the
ideas thus having been taken care of, Darwin set to work to prepare his
In 1875, Wallace came out openly for spiritism and Marxism, another
stepchild of Darwinism. This was Wallace’s theory: Species have changed in
the past, by which one species descended from another in a manner that we
cannot prove today. That is exactly what modern evolution teaches. Yet it
has no more evidence supporting the theory than Wallace had in 1858 when
he devised the theory while in a fever.
In February 1858, while in a delirious fever on the island of Ternate in
the Molaccas, Wallace conceived the idea, "survival of the fittest," as
being the method by which species change. But the concept proves nothing.
The fittest; which one is that? It is the one that survived longest. Which
one survives longest? The fittest. This is reasoning in a circle. The
phrase says nothing about the evolutionary process, much less proving it.
In the first edition of his book, Darwin regarded "natural selection" and
"survival of the fittest" as different concepts. By the sixth edition of
his Origin of the Species, he thought they meant the same thing, but that
"survival of the fittest" was the more accurate. In a still later book
(Descent of Man, 1871), Darwin ultimately abandoned "natural selection" as
a hopeless mechanism and returned to Lamarckism. Even Darwin recognized
the theory was falling to pieces. The supporting evidence just was not
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was born into wealth and able to have a
life of ease. He took two years of medical school at Edinburgh University,
and then dropped out. It was the only scientific training he ever
received. Because he spent the time in the bars with his friends, he
barely passed his courses. Darwin had no particular purpose in life, and
his father planned to get him into a nicely paid job as an Anglican
minister. Darwin did not object.
But an influential relative got him a position as unpaid "naturalist" on a
ship planning to sail around the world, the Beagle. The voyage lasted from
December 1831 to October 1836.
It is of interest that, after engaging in spiritism, certain men in
history have been seized with a deep hatred of God and have then been
guided to devise evil teachings, that have destroyed large numbers of
people, while others have engaged in warfare which have annihilated
millions. In connection with this, we think of such known spiritists as
Sigmund Freud and Adolf Hitler. It is not commonly known that Charles
Darwin, while a naturalist aboard the Beagle, was initiated into
witchcraft in South America by nationals. During horseback travels into
the interior, he took part in their ceremonies and, as a result, something
happened to him. Upon his return to England, although his health was
strangely weakened, he spent the rest of his life working on theories to
destroy faith in the Creator.
After leaving South America, Darwin was on the Galapagos Islands for a few
days. While there, he saw some finches, which had blown in from South
America and adapted to their environment, producing several sub-species.
He was certain that this showed cross-species evolution (change into new
species). But they were still finches. This theory about the finches was
the primary evidence of evolution he brought back with him to England.
Darwin, never a scientist and knowing nothing about the practicalities of
genetics, then married his first cousin, which resulted in all seven of
his children having physical or mental disorders. (One girl died after
birth, another at 10. His oldest daughter had a prolonged breakdown at 15.
Three of his six sons became semi-invalids, and his last son was born
mentally retarded and died 19 months after birth.)
His book, Origin of the Species, was first published in November 1859. The
full title, On the Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection or
the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, reveals the
viciousness of the underlying concept; this concept led directly to two of
the worst wars in the history of mankind.
In his book, Darwin reasoned from
theory to facts, and provided little evidence for what he had to say.
Modern evolutionists are ashamed of the book, with its ridiculous
Darwin’s book had what some men
wanted: a clear out-in-the-open, current statement in favor of species
change. So, in spite of its laughable imperfections, they capitalized on
it. Here is what you will find in his book:
Darwin would cite authorities that he did not mention. He repeatedly said
it was "only an abstract," and "a fuller edition" would come out later.
But, although he wrote other books, try as he may he never could find the
proof for his theories. No one since has found it either.
When he did name an authority, it was just an opinion from a letter.
Phrases indicating the hypothetical nature of his ideas were frequent: "It
might have been," "Maybe," "probably," "it is conceivable that." A
favorite of his was: "Let us take an imaginary example."
Darwin would suggest a possibility, and later refer back to it as a fact:
"As we have already demonstrated previously." Elsewhere he would suggest a
possible series of events and then conclude by assuming that proved the
He relied heavily on stories instead of facts. Confusing examples would be
given. He would use specious and devious arguments, and spent much time
suggesting possible explanations why the facts he needed were not
Here is an example of his reasoning:
To explain the fossil trans-species gaps, Darwin suggested
that species must have been changing quickly in other parts of
the world where men had not yet examined the strata. Later
these changed species traveled over to the Western World, to
be found in strata there as new species. So species were
changing on the other side of the world, and that was why
species in the process of change were not found on our side!
|With thinking like this, who needs
science? But remember that Charles Darwin never had a day of
schooling in the sciences.
Here is Darwin’s explanation of
how one species changes into another:
It is a variation of Lamarck’s theory of inheritance of acquired
characteristics (Nicholas Hutton III, Evidence of Evolution, 1962, p.
138). Calling it pangenesis, Darwin said that an organ affected by the
environment would respond by giving off particles that he called gemmules.
These particles supposedly helped determine hereditary characteristics.
The environment would affect an organ; gemmules would drop out of the
organ; and the gemmules would travel to the reproductive organs, where
they would affect the cells (W. Stansfield, Science of Evolution, 1977, p.
38). As mentioned earlier, scientists today are ashamed of Darwin’s ideas.
In his book, Darwin taught that man came from an ape, and that the
stronger races would, within a century or two, destroy the weaker ones.
(Modern evolutionists claim that man and ape descended from a common
After taking part in the witchcraft ceremonies, not only was his mind
affected but his body also. He developed a chronic and incapacitating
illness, and went to his death under a depression he could not shake
(Random House Encyclopedia, 1977, p. 768).
He frequently commented in private letters that he recognized that there
was no evidence for his theory, and that it could destroy the morality of
the human race. "Long before the reader has arrived at this part of my
work, a crowd of difficulties will have occurred to him. Some of them are
so serious that to this day I can hardly reflect on them without in some
degree becoming staggered" (Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species, 1860,
p. 178; quoted from Harvard Classics, 1909 ed., Vol. 11). "Often a cold
shudder has run through me, and I have asked myself whether I may have not
devoted myself to a phantasy" (Charles Darwin, Life and Letters, 1887,
Vol. 2, p. 229).
Thomas Huxley (1825-1895) was the man Darwin called "my bulldog."
Darwin was so frail in health that he did not make public appearances, but
remained secluded in the mansion he inherited. After being personally
converted by Darwin (on a visit to Darwin’s home), Huxley championed the
evolutionary cause with everything he had. In the latter part of the 19th
century, while Haeckel labored earnestly on the European continent, Huxley
was Darwin’s primary advocate in England.
The X Club was a secret society in London which worked to further
evolutionary thought and suppress scientific opposition to it. It was
powerful, for all scientific papers considered by the Royal Society were
first approved by this small group of nine members. Chaired by Huxley, its
members made contacts and powerfully affected British scientific
associations (Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984, p. 64). " ‘But
what do they do?’ asked a curious journalist. ‘They run British science,’
a professor replied, ‘and on the whole, they don’t do it badly’ " (R.
Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 467). In the 20th century,
U.S. government agencies, working closely with the National Science
Federation and kindred organizations, have channeled funds for research to
universities willing to try to find evidence for evolution. Down to the
present day, the theorists are still trying to control the scientists.
The Oxford Debate was held in June 1860 at Oxford University, only
seven months after the publication of Darwin’s Origin of the Species. A
special meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,
it marked a major turning point in England,--just as the 1925 Scopes Trial
would be the turning point in North America. Scientific facts had little
to do with either event; both were just battles between personalities. In
both instances, evolutionists won through ridicule. They dared not rely on
scientific facts to support their case, because they had none.
Samuel Wilberforce, Anglican bishop of Oxford University, was scheduled to
speak that evening in defense of creationism. Huxley had lectured on
behalf of evolution in many English cities and was not planning to attend
that night. But Chambers, a spiritualist adviser to Huxley, was impressed
to find and tell him he must attend.
Wilberforce delivered a vigorous attack on evolution for half an hour
before a packed audience of 700 people. His presentation was outstanding,
and the audience was apparently with him. But then Wilberforce turned and
rhetorically asked Huxley a humorous question, whether it was through his
grandfather or his grandmother that Huxley claimed descent from an ape.
Huxley was extremely sharp-witted and, at the bishop’s question, he
clasped the knee of the person sitting next to him, and said, "He is
delivered into my hands!"
Huxley arose and worked the audience up to a climax, and then declared
that he would feel no shame in having an ape as an ancestor, but would be
ashamed of a brilliant man who plunged into scientific questions of which
he knew nothing (John W. Klotz, "Science and Religion," in Studies in
Creation, 1985, pp. 45-46).
At this, the entire room went wild, some yelling one thing and others
another. On a pretext so thin, the evolutionists in England became a power
which scientists feared to oppose. We will learn that ridicule heaped on
ridicule, through the public press, accomplished the same results for
American evolutionists in Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925.
The Orgueil Meteorite (1861) was one of many hoaxes perpetrated, to
further the cause of evolution. Someone inserted various dead microbes,
and then covered it over with a surface appearing like the meteorite. The
objective was to show that life came from outer space. But the hoax was
later discovered (Scientific American, January 1965, p. 52). A remarkable
number of hoaxes have occurred since then. Men, working desperately, tried
to provide the scientific evidence that does not exist. In the mid-1990s,
a meteorite "from Mars" with "dead organisms" on it was trumpeted in the
press. But ignored were the conclusions of competent scientists, that both
"discoveries" were highly speculative.
Sir Francis Galton (1865). Galton was Charles Darwin’s cousin, who
amplified on one of the theory’s logical conclusions. He declared that the
"science" of "eugenics" was the key to humanity’s problems: Put the weak,
infirm, and aged to sleep. Adolf Hitler, an ardent evolutionist, used it
successfully in World War II (Otto Scott, "Playing God," in Chalcedon
Report, No. 247, February 1986, p. 1).
Wallace’s Break with Darwin. Darwin’s close friend, Russell Wallace,
eventually separated from Darwin’s position--a position he had given
Darwin--when Wallace realized that the human brain was far too advanced
for evolutionary processes to have produced it (Loren C. Eiseley, "Was
Darwin Wrong about the Human Brain?" Harpers Magazine, 211:66-70, 1955).
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), along with certain other men
(Friedrich Nietzche, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, John Dewey, etc.)
introduced evolutionary modes and morality into social fields (sociology,
psychology, education, warfare, economics, etc.) with devastating effects
on the 20th century. Spencer, also a spiritist, was the one who initially
invented the term, "evolution" (R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution,
1990, p. 159; cf. 424). Spencer introduced sociology into Europe, clothing
it in evolutionary terms. From there it traveled to America. He urged that
the unfit be eliminated, so society could properly evolve (Harry E.
Barnes, Historical Sociology, 1948, p. 13). In later years, even the
leading evolutionists of the time, such as Huxley and Darwin, became tired
of the fact that Spencer could do nothing but theorize and knew so little
of real-life facts.
Archaeopteryx (1861, 1877). These consisted of several fossils from
a single limestone quarry in Germany, each of which the quarry owner sold
at a high price. One appeared to possibly be a small dinosaur skeleton,
complete with wings and feathers. European museums paid high prices for
Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), a teacher at the University of Jena in
Germany, was the most zealous advocate of Darwinism on the continent in
the 19th century. He drew a number of fraudulent charts (first published
in 1868) which purported to show that human embryos were almost identical
to those of other animals. Reputable scientists repudiated them within a
few years, for embryologists recognized the deceit. Darwin and Haeckel had
a strong influence on the rise of world communism (Daniel Gasman,
Scientific Origins of National Socialism: Social Darwinism in Ernst
Haeckel and the German Monist League, 1971, p. xvi).
Marsh’s Horse Series (1870s). Othniel C. Marsh claimed to have
found 30 different kinds of horse fossils in Wyoming and Nebraska. He
reconstructed and arranged them in a small-to-large evolutionary series,
which was never in a straight line (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1976 ed.,
Vol. 7, p. 13). Although displayed in museums for a time, the great
majority of scientists later repudiated this "horse series" (Charles
Deperet, Transformations of the Animal World, p. 105; G.A. Kerkut,
Implications of Evolution, 1960, p. 149).
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). Nietzsche was a remarkable example
of a man who fully adopted Darwinist principles. He wrote books declaring
that the way to evolve was to have wars and kill the weaker races, in
order to produce a "super race" (T. Walter Wallbank and Alastair M.
Taylor, Civilization Past and Present, Vol. 2, 1949 ed., p. 274). Darwin,
in Origin of the Species, also said that this needed to happen. The
writings of both men were read by German militarists and led to World War
I. Hitler valued both Darwin’s and Nietzche’s books. When Hitler killed 6
million Jews, he was only doing what Darwin taught.
It is of interest, that a year before he defended John Scopes’ right to
teach Darwinism at the Dayton "Monkey Trial," Clarence Darrow declared in
court that the murderous thinking of two young men was caused by their
having learned Nietzsche’s vicious Darwinism in the public schools (W.
Brigan, ed., Classified Speeches).
Asa Gray was the first leading theistic evolutionary advocate in
America, at the time when Darwin was writing his books. Gray, a
Presbyterian, worked closely with Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard,
in promoting evolution as a "Christian teaching," yet teaching long ages
and the book of Genesis as a fable.
The Challenger was a British ship dispatched to find evidence, on
the ocean bottom, of evolutionary change. During its 1872-1876 voyage, it
carried on seafloor dredging, but found no fossils developing on the
bottom of the ocean. By this time, it was obvious to evolutionists that no
fossils were developing on either land or sea, yet they kept quiet about
the matter. Over the years, theories, hoaxes, false claims, and ridicule
favoring evolution were spread abroad; but facts refuting it, when found,
were kept hidden.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) is closely linked with Darwinism. That which
Darwin did to biology, Marx with the help of others did to society. All
the worst political philosophies of the 20th century emerged from the dark
cave of Darwinism. Marx was thrilled when he read Origin of the Species
and he immediately wrote Darwin and asked to dedicate his own major work,
Das Kapital, to him. Darwin, in his reply, thanked him but said it would
be best not to do so.
In 1866, Marx wrote to Frederick Engels, that Origin of the Species
contained the basis in natural history for their political and economic
system for an atheist world. Engels, the co-founder of world communism
with Marx and Lenin, wrote to Karl Marx in 1859: "Darwin, whom I am just
now reading, is splendid" (C. Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology, and the
Social Scene, 1959, p. 85). In 1861, Marx wrote to Engels: "Darwin’s book
is very important and serves me as a basis in natural selection for the
class struggle in history" (op. cit., p. 86). At Marx’s funeral, Engles
said that, as Darwin had discovered the law of organic evolution in
natural history, so Marx had discovered the law of evolution in human
history (Otto Ruhle, Karl Marx, 1948, p. 366).
As Darwin emphasized competitive survival as the key to advancement, so
communism focused on the value of labor rather than the laborer. Like
Darwin, Marx thought he had discovered the law of development. He saw
history in stages, as the Darwinists saw geological strata and successive
forms of life.
William Grant Sumner (1840-1910) applied evolutionary principles to
political economics at Yale University. He taught many of America’s future
business and industrial leaders that strong business should succeed and
the weak perish, and that to help the unfit was to injure the fit and
accomplish nothing for society (R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution,
1990, pp. 59, 446, 72). Millionaires were, in his thinking, the "fittest."
Modern laissez-faire capitalism was the result (Gilman M. Ostrander, The
Evolutionary Outlook: 1875-1900, 1971, p. 5).
William James (1842-1910) was another evolutionist who influenced
American thinking. His view of psychology placed the study of human
behavior on an animalistic evolutionary basis.
Tidal Hypothesis Theory (1890). George Darwin, son of Charles
Darwin, wanted to come up with something original, so he invented the
theory that four million years ago the moon was pressed nearly against the
earth, which revolved every five hours.--Then one day, a heavy tide
occurred in the oceans, which lifted it out to its present location! Later
proponents of George’s theory decided that the Pacific Basin is the hole
the moon left behind, when the large ocean waves pushed it out into space.
History of Evolution Part 2